Clips & Pointers
Metadata Registries Workshop, April 15 - 17, 1998, Washington, DC, Summary
US Geological Survey
Reston VA 20192
Recently, practitioners and standards developers discussed progress in efforts to manage the content (semantics) of data that is exchanged between organizations or disseminated via the World Wide Web. From April 15 through April 17, a Metadata Registries Workshop was held in Washington, D.C., with about 70 attendees from private enterprise, government, academia, and standards organizations. The workshop focused on international standard ISO 11179, Specification and Standardization of Data Elements. Presentations and discussions covered a framework for data standardization including basic attributes, naming, definitions, classification, and registration. Also discussed was standard ANSI DpANS X3.285, Metamodel for the Management of Sharable Data, which is a further elaboration of ISO 11179. Implementations related to ISO 11179 were presented by various groups for application areas including: Environmental Data, Health Care, Transportation, Census, Learning Objects, and the Global Information Locator Service (GILS). The Workshop also discussed work underway to extend metadata registration capabilities using related technologies such as Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA) and the XML Resource Description Framework (RDF) proposed by the World Wide Web Consortium. Work on the metadata registry standards is being progressed through the National Committee for Information Technology Standards (NCITS) L8, Data Representation. (URL: www.lbl.gov/~olken/X3L8.html).
For more information on the Workshop, including copies of the presentations, see:
Participation by those interested is invited.
Tables of Contents from Journal of the American Society for Information Science (JASIS)Contributed by Richard Hill
American Society for Information Science
The American Society for Information Science (ASIS) has provided tables of contents for recent issues of its journal. The research articles are identified below. From the Society's JASIS page, you may browse, search, and view the abstracts and book reviews; find information on submission of articles; and follow a link to the full text version of these stories, which is managed by John Wiley & Sons Interscience Web Site. The latter is subject to registration but is currently free of charge.
Journal of the American Society for Information Science
May 1, 1998
In This Issue [The text of "In This Issue" is inserted below each article reviewed]
Bert R. Boyce
Professional Summarizing: No Cognitive Simulation without Observation
Brigitte Endres-Niggemeyer and Elisabeth Neugebauer
Endres-Neggemeyer and Neugebauer empirically observe and isolate the work steps of the document representation process to create a model of the summarization mechanism. A toolbox of strategies used in summarizing processes is identified, and used to create a conceptual model which is projected onto a blackboard design.
Scholarly Communication and Electronic Journals: An Impact Study
Stephen P. Harter
Using a database of peer-reviewed electronic journals drawn from two directories, Harter did cited work searches for 39 ejournals on the three ISI citation databases. Using DIALOG to create a reasonable collection of the various forms of the ejournal titles to be found, considerable effort was devoted to a manual cleanup of the results. Eleven were published in both print and electronic formats, and citations make no distinction as to which format was utilized. Fifteen ejournals were not cited and 13 were cited between one and five times. Eight were cited ten or more times; three from the sciences and five from the social sciences. Thus overall impact must be considered low. The top ejournal had 1500 citations in 1994 alone, but it is available in both formats. The top pure ejournal has 190 citations, and PACS Review, some of whose volumes were published in book form had 111 citations. These top three, when compared to other journals in their disciplinary area, ranked high in impact factor, but poorly in total number of articles published.
A Comparison of Group and Individual Performance among Subject Experts and Untrained Workers at the Document Retrieval Task
W. John Wilbur
Using a cosine vector approach, the 50 closest documents to 100 query documents chosen randomly by Wilber were isolated. Judges compared each set of 50 to the query document assigning relevance on a scale. Using seven subject expert judges, six were considered a panel and the seventh the target user, with target user rotated to increase the data points. A panel of six learned, but other than subject expert judges, was also used. Groups were more effective than individuals at predicting the judgments of an unknown user, and other than subject expert groups performed nearly as well as expert groups. Because some documents are rated high by most judges and others are rated high by few or only individual judges, only by pooling can documents of wide appeal be identified. This infers the need for emulation of group rather than individual judgements in retrieval processes.
Citation Context versus the Frequency Counts of Citation Histories
Sinisa Maricic, Jagoda Spaventi, Leo Pavicic, and Greta Pifat-Mrzljak
Maricic et al., selected 219 cited papers and their citing paper. The physical section of the citing paper where the cited paper occurred was noted and a point value assigned. The citation's meaningful (high) or cursory (low) nature was also judged and using these two values a combined ordinal scale was created. A factor analysis seems to indicate separability by location. One factor is dominated by the introduction, one by the results section and the third by an inverse relationship between methodology and conclusion sections. The time delay of citation has little effect on this analysis. Cursory citations are found only in the introduction and meaningful citations are in all sections. The numerical analysis and the context analysis provide varying results and caution against evaluation on raw citation counts.
User Satisfaction with Information Seeking on the Internet
Measures of satisfaction lack clear definition and tend to be multi-variate constructs based on a combination of the results of rating scales on several variables providing only ordinal measures. Satisfaction for Bruce is measured using cross modality matching to achieve an interval scale. Two hundred e-mail addresses were invited to take part and 37 academics agreed. After being interviewed concerning past information seeking experiences on the Internet, satisfaction estimates were solicited and received in terms of numerical magnitude estimates, a one to six category rating, and in terms of grip force exerted. The measures for satisfaction have correlations similar to those for estimates of line length by the same subjects, and the ratios for line estimation and satisfaction are virtually identical. Subjects regard themselves as infrequent users, are self taught and have a high expectation of success in Internet searching. No relationship was found between Internet training and satisfaction, or between satisfaction and frequency of use.
Testing the Maximum Entropy Principle for Information Retrieval
Paul B. Kantor and Jung Jin Lee
Kantor and Jung Jin Lee test the Maximum Entropy Principle for retrieval using the TREC5 database and a binary classification based on the presence or absence of terms in text. MEP performs best with small data sets and progressively worsens as database size increases. Whereas it's use is certainly computationally tractable, it seems unlikely that the principle accurately reflects the distribution of terms across relevant and non-relevant texts or that it will lead to enhanced retrieval.
Journal of the American Society for Information Science
May 15, 1998
Special Topic Issue: Artificial Intelligence Techniques for Emerging Information Systems Applications
Guest Editor: Hsinchun Chen
Internet Browsing and Searching: User Evaluations of Category Map and Concept Space Techniques
Hsinchun Chen, Andrea L. Houston, Robin R. Sewell, and Bruce R. Schatz
A Smart Itsy Bitsy Spider for the Web
Hsinchun Chen, Yi-Ming Chung, Marshall Ramsey, and Christopher C. Yang
Speech Recognition for a Digital Video Library
Michael J. Witbrock and Alexander G. Hauptmann
A Texture Thesaurus for Browsing Large Aerial Photographs
Wei-Ying Ma and B.S. Manjunath
Nicholas C. Romano, Jr., Jay F. Nunamaker, Jr., Robert O. Briggs, and Douglas R. Vogel
Resource Description Framework (RDF) Schemas, W3C Working Draft, 9 April 1998
This draft document is a work in progress. It represents the deliberations of the W3C RDF Schema Working Group as of the date it was issued. Full consensus has not been reached by the Working Group on all parts of this document; see Appendix C ("Open Issues"). The Working Group has made this snapshot of its progress available for general discussion, comment, and feedback. Information on submission of comments and a public archive of earlier comments are accessible from the page.
California Digital Library (CDL) Planning Site
The planning site for the University of California's California Digital Library (CDL) is now available for general use. The site offers various planning documents, presentations, collection development guidelines, and an FAQ. This is not the CDL Web site, which is still in the planning stages.
Digital Collections: A strategic policy framework for creating and preserving digital resources, Version 3.1, 24/4/98
The study was based upon traditional research methods and on fifteen structured interviews, conducted in person, over the telephone, or by email, with senior data managers and specialists in digitisation, data management or the long-term preservation of digital information resources in the UK or overseas. The study is part of a program funded by the Joint Information Systems Committee (JISC) of the Higher Education sector in the UK. It is guided by the Digital Archiving Working Group, composed of members from UK Higher Education Libraries, Data Centres and Services; the British Library; the National Preservation Office; the Research Libraries Group; and the Publishers' Association. The Group reports to the Management Committee of the National Preservation Office in the UK. The program is administered by the British Library Research and Innovation Centre. The Arts and Humanities Data Service (AHDS) is funded by JISC on behalf of the UK Higher Education community to collect, manage, preserve, and promote the re-use of scholarly digital resources.
The draft of this study is now available for public comment. Comments and additions for incorporation are accordingly welcome and should be mailed to: firstname.lastname@example.org and email@example.com by June 30, 1998.
Standards for Interchange of Digital Information
This is another document from the Arts and Humanities Data Service (AHDS) (see previous entry). It is the initial presentation of organizations that are working on relevant standards for the interchange of cultural resource material and reflects the technical issues that arise in data interchange across networks; the heterogeneity of the underlying data and the varying documentation standards of the concerned domain communities; and, finally, the controlled vocabularies and thesauri employed by these communities to describe, classify, and interpret their material. These standards cover:
- Technical standards for data interchange (e.g., encoding and compression).
- Data documentation standards (e.g., MARC, Dublin Core, CIMI).
- Controlled vocabularies (e.g., Anglo-American Cataloguing Rules (AACR2), Art and Architecture Thesaurus).
This exercise is the preliminary step to gathering and considering actual "best practices" in implementing and using particular standards for networking particular bodies of information and for maximising their usefulness.
ARIADNE: Educational Metadata Recommendation Summary
The ARIADNE project, supported by the European Union Telematics for Applications Program, has recently published its recommendations for educational metadata. The project's primary goal is to foster the share and reuse of electronic pedagogical material, both by universities and corporations. For this purpose, a distributed database of reusable pedagogical documents has been set up, called the Knowledge Pool System. Currently, eight nodes of this system are operational throughout Europe and many more will be set up in the near future. The Knowledge Pool System holds both the pedagogical documents and detailed descriptions of these documents. The metadata are grouped in mandatory and optional categories. They cover:
- general information: title, author, date, language, etc.
- semantics: discipline, main and other concepts, etc.
- pedagogical characteristics: didactical context, course level, etc.
- technical characteristics: file media types, size, etc.
- conditions for use: rights of use, price code, etc.
- meta-metadata: creation date, language, etc.
- annotations: annotator, date, etc.
- physical characteristics of the represented resource
The ARIADNE metadata set explicitly refers to the Dublin core elements and adds additional elements to this base set, based on experience in practical experiments during the last two years. Members of the user group also have access to a software tool that has been developed for insertion of metadata by end users. The same tool, developed as a Java application, can also be used to query the Knowledge Pool System. Courses can be built that reuse the documents stored in the Knowledge Pool System and, from the course description, a course Web site for student access is generated automatically.
The ARIADNE team is deeply involved in an IEEE standardisation process regarding educational metadata, and has agreed on a memorandum of understanding with the U.S. Educom sponsored Instructional Management Systems (IMS) project.
Clearinghouse of Image Databases at the University of Arizona Library
The Clearinghouse of Image Databases is an online directory of image databases housed at the University of Arizona Library. Its intended audience was initially librarians and archivists who were either planning or developing databases containing digitized images from their collections. Since its inception in 1994, the Clearinghouse's scope and purpose has been expanded to gather technical and descriptive information about imaging projects as information resources, regardless of their source. The Clearinghouse operates with an open invitation for submissions. Incomplete submissions are still accepted in the expectation that even an abbreviated submission will be useful. Instruction on submission to the database (one for images and one for scanning projects) are available at the site as well as additional information on the IMAGELIB listserv.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS) Database. Free of charge access until June 30, 1998
The International Atomic Energy Agency will offer free of charge access to the International Nuclear Information System (INIS) Database until June 30, 1998. This web based system allows registered users to search and retrieve data from the international database of over one million records covering the scientific literature on the peaceful applications of nuclear science and technology. The Database also includes the economic and environmental aspects of all non-nuclear energy sources and bibliographic citations to journal articles, research and development reports, conference papers, books, patents, theses, laws, regulations and standards.
US Department of Energy (DOE) Information Bridge
This system can be used to access, locate, search, and download full-text and/or bibliographic information. It currently includes the full-text of over 25,000 US Department of Energy (DOE) research and development reports and their bibliographic records, and abstracts in physics, chemistry, materials, biology, environmental cleanup, energy technologies, and other topics. These reports were contributed to the OSTI collection by the Scientific and Technical Information Program (STIP) partners at the various DOE and contractor research and development sites throughout the DOE complex.
Public access to the DOE Information Bridge web site is a cooperative effort funded by the Government Printing Office (GPO) and DOE. Creation of the site is part of DOE's Strategic Objective of increasing public access to, and therefore the visibility of, DOE scientific and technical information, and improving the taxpayer's return on investment for DOE R&D activities. It is also a major step in GPO's transition to a more electronic Federal Depository Library Program.
ARCL/CNI Internet Education Project
The Emerging Technologies in Instruction Committee of the ACRL Instruction Section, in conjunction with the Coalition for Networked Information, is sponsoring a site that identifies exemplary user education and training materials supporting the use of the Internet and other networked information resources. The project proposes to enable librarians and others involved in the instruction and delivery of networked information to display and share model instructional materials designed for the selection and evaluation of information in a networked environment. Materials selected for inclusion on the site will be considered the professional standard.
Of particular interest to the committee are materials that demonstrate innovative and creative use of technology in instruction and those which successfully integrate the selection and evaluation of both print and electronic resources.
Australian Libraries Gateway
On behalf of the Australian library community, the National Library of Australia has developed the Australian Libraries Gateway to enable users to access the information held by more than 2,500 libraries in Australia. The first release of the Gateway lets users:
- find all the libraries in a local area (address, phone number, access conditions, etc.) by using the basic search function or the map facility
- locate all the public or university (etc.) libraries in Australia or just those in a particular region of Australia
- link to the web site of a library and discover the resources it provides and the services it offers
- search the catalogues of libraries throughout Australia and
- access Australia's cultural heritage via on-line exhibitions, events, image collections, and oral-histories
and, in the future:
- search a directory of catalogues of libraries and other cultural agencies using the widely accepted Z39.50 information retrieval standard
- link to Internet subject guides maintained on library web sites throughout Australia - in this way, libraries can help users by directing them to some of the most useful resources available on the Internet
- discover information on the subject strengths of Australian Libraries, based on the Australian Conspectus database
Digital Archive Directions (DADs) Workshop, June 22-26, 1998, National Archives and Records Administration, Archives II, College Park, Maryland USA.
Issues of archiving information in digital form are the subject of this two-part workshop, sponsored by:
- International Organization for Standardization (ISO)
- Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS)
- Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS)
- The Johns Hopkins University - Applied Physics Laboratory (APL)
- National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)
- National Archives and Records Administration (NARA)
- Research Libraries Group (RLG).
The first section is open to the public; the second is restricted to individuals who have submitted a position paper. The call for papers closes on May 29, 1998. Further information is available at the workshop's site.
CAIS/ACSI '98 Programme: "Information Science at the Dawn of the Millennium", 26th Annual Conference of the Canadian Association for Information Science/Association Canadiènne des Sciences de L'information, June 3 - 5, 1998, Université d'Ottawa, Ottawa, Canada
This conference will host two plenaries and sessions organized around the following topics:
- Information Policy
- Information Management
- Information Use
- Information Theory
- Information Representation/Organization
- Information Retrieval
CAIS is meeting under the umbrella of the Federation of Social Sciences and Humanities of Canada. Further information on the program, registration, and related matters can be found at the conference's site.
Information Landscapes For A Learning Society, Networking and the future of libraries 3, June 29 - July 1, 1998, University Hall, The University of Bath, Bath, UK
Sessions at this international conference will include:
- Information architectures: constructing the digital library
- Information landscapes: the accommodation of knowledge
- Information and the public sphere: an informed citizenry
- Information exchanges: the library, the network and the future
The closing date for bookings is June 8, 1998. Cancellations between June 8 and 22 will incur a cancellation fee of 50 pounds. There will be no refunds for cancellations received on or after June 22, 1998. Complete information on the program, registration, and travel are available at the conference's web site.
Digital Libraries '98: Third ACM Conference on Digital Libraries, June 23 - 26, 1998, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania USA
The preliminary list of long and short papers, grouped by topic in planned sessions, has been posted (see http://ks.com/conferences/518.html). The sessions include the following:
- Document classification and clustering
- Preservation and archiving
- Tools and environments
- Retrieval and performance issues
- Document components
- Coping with structured documents
- Audio and video libraries
- Search methods
- Distributed libraries
- User support and usage analysis
- Metadata issues
- Application areas
- Internet information access
Further information concerning the program (which includes papers, posters, courses, and workshops), registration, and related issues is found at the conference's site
American Library Association (ALA) Annual Conference, June 26-30, 1998, Washington, DC USA
The American Library Association's (ALA) annual conference will be held in Washington, DC. The theme of the President's program is "Libraries: Global Reach, Local Touch". The conference encompasses a broad range of material and library communities, several of which concern technology, management of technology, and cataloging. Further information on the program, special events, round table discussions, exhibits, registration, and logistics are available at the conference's site.
TEI and XML in Digital Libraries, June 30 - July 1, 1998, Library of Congress, Washington, DC USA
The Digital Library Federation (DLF) is sponsoring a two-day meeting on the Text Encoding Initiative (TEI) and Extensible Markup Language (XML) to be held at the Library of Congress, Washington, DC. The workshop proposes to cover the following issues:
- The application of TEI in library-based text encoding projects.
- The relationship(s) among the TEI header, MARC, and AACR2. Recommendations for common practice, best practice.
- Models for structural metadata in encoded-text projects. Recommendations for common practice, best practice.
- Ramifications of XML development on existing and future digital library encoded-text programs: Web delivery of encoded text; modifications to existing DTDs and standards (TEI, EAD, MARC, ISO 12083), etc.
- The representation of library-related issues in future TEI governance.
- Future governance and stability of the TEI.
The meeting is open to all, on a space-available basis. Registration is via e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org or the site.
The Second International Conference on Practical Aspects of Knowledge Management (PAKM98), October 29 - 30, 1998, Basel, Switzerland. Call for Papers closes July 11, 1998.
The PAKM Conference proposes to bring together people with organizational and technical experience in a series of workshops and plenary sessions. Original papers are invited that describe technical and/or organizational approaches to solving a "real world" Knowledge Management problem in terms accessible to both managers and technical specialists. Further information on submission requirements are found at the conference's web page.
This conference is supported by the SGAICO (Swiss Group for Artificial Intelligence and Cognitive Science) and the Special Interest Group "Knowledge Engineering" of the German Informatics Society.
New Networks, Old Information: UKOLUG98, July 14 - 16, 1998, Manchester, UK
This conference proposes to look at issues in libraries and information units in a range of important areas. Speakers have been invited who can address the issues surrounding society and users, government, the industry, research, telecomms and the Internet as they affect our profession. Papers have also been solicited on the topic of information security and an update of the 1996 legal issues paper which has been found very useful.
UKOLUG (the UK Online User Group) is the leading UK group for online and CD-ROM and Internet searchers. The Group exists as a forum for the exchange of experience and as a channel of communication about electronic information resources. UKOLUG has an extensive program of meetings, publishes a bi-monthly Newsletter, and runs the lis-ukolug (http://www.mailbase.ac.uk/lists/lis-ukolug/) discussion list. UKOLUG is celebrating its 20th anniversary this year.
Additional information on this meeting is available at the conference's site
Museum Computer Network Conference '98: Knowledge Creation, Knowledge Sharing, Knowledge Preservation, September 23 - 26, 1998, Santa Monica, California, USA.
Richard Lucier of the University of California's California Digital Library (CDL) will keynote at this five-day conference in the fall of 1998. The program will also include pre-conference seminars and workshops on practical topics, papers and presentations on information technology and museums, and exhibits of commercial products. Eleven Pre-Conference Workshops have been organized.
- Managing Digital Imaging Projects, with Mikki Carpenter, and Linda Serenson Colet, Museum of Modern Art
- Kick-Starting Your Intranet, with Sam Quigley, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, and Lara Greenwood, Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology
- Strategic Technology Planning for Museums, with Robert L. Anderson, Anderson Technologies
- Empowering the Visitor at the Museum Web Site: Designing Points of Response and Interaction for the Visitor, with Susan Hazan, The Israel Museum
- Negotiating Skills for Licensing Museum Content, with Amalyah Keshet, The Israel Museum, and Lesley Ellen Harris, Copyright and New Media Lawyer
- Introduction to Standards, with Kathy Jones-Garmil, Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology, and Richard Rinehart, Berkeley Art Museum/Pacific Film Archive
- Information Management in Museums: Planning and Implementing Successful Systems, with Leslie Latta-Guthrie, University of Alberta, and Charlene Garvey, Museums Alberta: Information Network
- Using the Getty Vocabularies (Thesaurus of Geographic Names, Art & Architecture Thesaurus, Union List of Artist Names), with Michelle Futornick, Alison Chipman, Laila Lalami, Christi Richardson, Robin Johnson, and Patricia Harpring, Getty Information Institute
- Building a Project Plan: A Hands-On Workshop, with Holly Rarick Witchey, San Diego Museum of Art
- Knowledge Management in Museums: Approaches, Tools, and Issues, with Guy Hermann, Mystic Seaport Museum
- Web Usability: Creating User-Friendly Web Sites, with Dr. Jurek Kirakowski, University College Cork and Dr. Nigel Claridge, NOMOS Management AB
- In-House Production Procedures for Museum Multimedia, with Chris Larrance and Peter Samis, San Francisco Museum of Modern Art, Robin Lilien and Charles Passela, J. Paul Getty Museum, and Brian Sullivan, J. Paul Getty Trust
All are half-day workshops, except Information Management in Museums: Planning and Implementing Successful Systems which is a full day. More information, including registration in mailing list for ongoing information, is available at the conference's web site.
Pointers in This Column
American Library Association (ALA) Annual Conference
June 26-30, 1998
Washington, DC USA
www.ala.org/events/dc98/ ARCL/CNI Internet Education Project www.cwru.edu/affil/cni/base/acrlcni.html ARIADNE: Educational Metadata Recommendation Summary ariadne.unil.ch/metadata.htm Australian Libraries Gateway www.nla.gov.au/libraries CAIS/ACSI '98 Programme: "Information Science at the Dawn of the Millennium"
26th Annual Conference of the Canadian Association for Information Science
Association Canadiènne des Sciences de L'information
June 3 - 5, 1998
Université d'Ottawa, Ottawa, Canada
www.mgmt.dal.ca/slis/cais98/ California Digital Library (CDL) Planning Site www.lpai.ucop.edu/outcomes/cdl/ Clearinghouse of Image Databases
University of Arizona Library
www.library.arizona.edu/images/image_projects.html Digital Archive Directions (DADs) Workshop
June 22-26, 1998
National Archives and Records Administration
College Park, Maryland USA.
ssdoo.gsfc.nasa.gov/nost/isoas/us12/ws.html Digital Collections: A strategic policy framework for creating and preserving digital resources, Version 3.1, 24/4/98 ahds.ac.uk/manage/framework.htm Digital Libraries '98: Third ACM Conference on Digital Libraries
June 23 - 26, 1998
Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania USA
www.ks.com/dl98/ DOE Information Bridge www.doe.gov/bridge/ Information Landscapes For A Learning Society, Networking and the future of libraries 3
June 29 - July 1, 1998
The University of Bath, Bath, UK
www.ukoln.ac.uk/events/ukoln-conf98/ International Nuclear Information System (INIS) Database http://www.iaea.org/programmes/inis/ JASIS www.asis.org/Publications/JASIS/jasis.html Metadata Registries Workshop ftp://sdct-sunsrv1.ncsl.nist.gov/x3l8/other/registry-workshop/meta00.htm Museum Computer Network Conference '98: Knowledge Creation, Knowledge Sharing, Knowledge Preservation
September 23 - 26, 1998
Santa Monica, California, USA
www.mcn.edu/MCN98/ National Committee for Information Technology Standards (NCITS) L8, Data Representation www.lbl.gov/~olken/X3L8.html New Networks, Old Information: UKOLUG98
July 14 - 16, 1998
www.ukolug.demon.co.uk/meetings/confprog.htm Resource Description Framework (RDF) Schemas
W3C Working Draft
9 April 1998
www.w3.org/TR/WD-rdf-schema/ Standards for Interchange of Digital Information ahds.ac.uk/resource/standards.html TEI and XML in Digital Libraries
June 30 - July 1, 1998
Library of Congress
Washington, DC USA
www.hti.umich.edu/misc/ssp/workshops/teidlf.html The Second International Conference on Practical Aspects of Knowledge Management (PAKM98)
October 29 - 30, 1998
Copyright (c) 1998 Corporation for National Research Initiatives
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